The Comprehensive Russian Computer Dictionary,
by Paul Druker and Yury Avrutin
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This dictionary was compiled by the authors as a result of dissatisfaction
with the field of available publications. The existing dictionaries lack on
two accounts: a) outdated word lists, b) no usable Russian-English
translations. We strove to produce a modern dictionary with succinct and
comprehensive lexicon. The result is this work of 30,000 computer-related
entries, divided equally between English and Russian languages.
Our attempt to produce an all-encompassing, comprehensive volume may in
itself be the dictionary’s biggest drawback — we chose not to emphasize any
particular subspecialty in the vast and rapidly expanding computer vocabulary,
while keeping to our self-imposed limit of 30,000 dictionary entries in order
to keep the printed volume a manageable size.
We attempted to include as many new words as we could — words which did not
exist, particularly in Russian, as recently as a year ago. Our emphasis on new
terminology has somewhat skewed the word list towards the Internet. But, of
course, it is the explosive growth of the Internet which has introduced new
concepts into wide circulation in the United States, followed by their entry
into the Russian language. In some cases, we invented words in Russian to
correspond to new expressions in English. Our favorite invention has to be цифрудиты
our translation of digerati. Only time will tell if we made good
choices and whether such new words will become a permanent part of the Russian
In our methodology of translation from English into Russian, we have chosen
to make usable translations rather than explanatory translations.
An explanatory translation is a long article in the foreign
language, spelling out a definition of the term. A usable translation
can be readily used in a written or spoken language. We resorted to a brief
explanation only when we considered it to be an absolute necessity, due to an
otherwise ambiguous translation.
Historically, Russian technical language has a stable tendency (starting
with Dutch naval terms introduced by Peter the Great, followed by an
all-pervasive usage of French, in vogue during and after the time of Napoleon,
then German in the first half of the 20th century, and finally U.S. English in
its second half) to acquire carbon copy transliterations of foreign terms. No
matter how unfortunate this may be from the viewpoint of the Russian
linguistics, a number of such terms have been accepted in common use by the
Russian technical and scientific community in verbal and written
communications and in technical publications and dictionaries. Whenever
possible, we have attempted to list both existing Russian equivalents and
widely accepted transliterations. An example of this might be firewall
which we translated as a well-established German transliteration брандмауэр,
together with native Russian перегородка
and the latest incarnation closest to its networking meaning of сетевой
Much thought and debate has gone into the dictionary structure. There were
two main choices to consider — a nested organization and a linear-alphabetical
list. A nested dictionary structure is more familiar to the Russian audience,
while the linear-alphabetical structure is prevalent among U.S. dictionaries.
A linear-alphabetical structure is advantageous for looking up multiple-word
entries. A nested dictionary structure has its strength in establishing a
term’s context. We chose a rather unorthodox linear-alphabetical dictionary
organization in combination with numerous cross-references to make it easy to
locate desired terms while permitting a look up additional,
An Internet version of this dictionary can be found at www.russian-dictionary.org.
This site contains the latest version of the dictionary, as well as forms
where the reader can submit corrections and additions for incorporation into
future editions of the dictionary.
We would like to thank IEEE Computer Society for undertaking the
publication of this dictionary. We would also like to express our gratitude to
Greg Cole, who heads the Center for International Networking Initiatives at
the University of Tennessee, Knoxville for maintaining the Friends and
Partners web site hosting an electronic version of the dictionary since 1994.
Our thanks and indebtedness goes to people too numerous to mention, for
corresponding with us over the years, giving us new ideas and suggestions,
helping us make this a better dictionary.
We see our audience as computer professionals, students, and anyone who
comes in contact with computers and the English and Russian languages. We hope
that the readers will find this dictionary to be a useful reference in their
Yury Avrutin and Paul Druker
Notes on Dictionary Usage
There are two types of dictionary articles — main and secondary. A main
article consists of a term and its translations. A secondary article lists a
term which may be an abbreviation, an acronym, or a form of a term which does
not require its own translation. The secondary article always references its
main article. If a main article has secondary terms, they are listed in
Translations close in meaning are separated by semicolons. Translations
representing different parts of speech and unrelated translations are
separated by bold numerals. In certain cases, in an effort to help the reader
establish the context, we have included a short explanation or a functional
group to which the translation belongs. Groups appear in italics preceding the
translation; explanations are italicized in parentheses after the
The English-Russian part of the dictionary lists parts of speech, groups
and cross-references in English; explanations are shown in Russian. The
Russian-English part of the dictionary is the opposite of the above — it lists
parts of speech, groups and cross-references in Russian; explanations are
shown in English.
A translation which is an abbreviation or an acronym is indicated by words
abbr and аббр.,
in English and Russian parts respectively. To cross-reference closely
related terms and synonyms, words See and См.
are used. Lower case see and см.
are used to reference the main dictionary article from a secondary entry
without its own translation. Contextually related terms are cross-referenced
with phrases See also and См.
также. In those cases where a
translation may be clarified by a comparison with another translation, words
Compare and Ср.
are used for cross-reference.
Homonyms are indicated by superscripted numerals in separate dictionary
articles. Wherever a homonym is used, either as a part of a translation or a
cross-reference, it is also superscripted.
According to the rules of the Russian grammar, word combinations cannot be
assigned a part of speech and therefore, unlike English dictionaries where
syntax error would be listed as a noun, standard Russian dictionaries
would list nothing for синтаксическая
ошибка. However, for the
benefit of our readers who may not be intimately familiar with the intricacies
of the Russian grammar, we have listed the identity of the masculine, feminine
and neuter nouns in word combinations so that синтаксическая
ошибка appears together with ж
See the following diagram for examples of dictionary articles and tables
below for a complete list of parts of speech, groups, and abbreviations used
in this dictionary.
Parts of speech
electronics and electricity
telephony and communications
printing and publishing
unit of measurement