Preface

The Comprehensive Russian Computer Dictionary,
by Paul Druker and Yury Avrutin

PREFACE


Note: To view this file correctly use Cyrillic fonts. Please set

your display / view to Encoding – Cyrillic (Windows-1251).

Introduction

This dictionary was compiled by the authors as a result of dissatisfaction

with the field of available publications. The existing dictionaries lack on

two accounts: a) outdated word lists, b) no usable Russian-English

translations. We strove to produce a modern dictionary with succinct and

comprehensive lexicon. The result is this work of 30,000 computer-related

entries, divided equally between English and Russian languages.

Our attempt to produce an all-encompassing, comprehensive volume may in

itself be the dictionary’s biggest drawback — we chose not to emphasize any

particular subspecialty in the vast and rapidly expanding computer vocabulary,

while keeping to our self-imposed limit of 30,000 dictionary entries in order

to keep the printed volume a manageable size.

We attempted to include as many new words as we could — words which did not

exist, particularly in Russian, as recently as a year ago. Our emphasis on new

terminology has somewhat skewed the word list towards the Internet. But, of

course, it is the explosive growth of the Internet which has introduced new

concepts into wide circulation in the United States, followed by their entry

into the Russian language. In some cases, we invented words in Russian to

correspond to new expressions in English. Our favorite invention has to be цифрудиты

our translation of digerati. Only time will tell if we made good

choices and whether such new words will become a permanent part of the Russian

language.

In our methodology of translation from English into Russian, we have chosen

to make usable translations rather than explanatory translations.

An explanatory translation is a long article in the foreign

language, spelling out a definition of the term. A usable translation

can be readily used in a written or spoken language. We resorted to a brief

explanation only when we considered it to be an absolute necessity, due to an

otherwise ambiguous translation.

Historically, Russian technical language has a stable tendency (starting

with Dutch naval terms introduced by Peter the Great, followed by an

all-pervasive usage of French, in vogue during and after the time of Napoleon,

then German in the first half of the 20th century, and finally U.S. English in

its second half) to acquire carbon copy transliterations of foreign terms. No

matter how unfortunate this may be from the viewpoint of the Russian

linguistics, a number of such terms have been accepted in common use by the

Russian technical and scientific community in verbal and written

communications and in technical publications and dictionaries. Whenever

possible, we have attempted to list both existing Russian equivalents and

widely accepted transliterations. An example of this might be firewall

which we translated as a well-established German transliteration брандмауэр,

together with native Russian перегородка

and the latest incarnation closest to its networking meaning of сетевой

экран.

Much thought and debate has gone into the dictionary structure. There were

two main choices to consider — a nested organization and a linear-alphabetical

list. A nested dictionary structure is more familiar to the Russian audience,

while the linear-alphabetical structure is prevalent among U.S. dictionaries.

A linear-alphabetical structure is advantageous for looking up multiple-word

entries. A nested dictionary structure has its strength in establishing a

term’s context. We chose a rather unorthodox linear-alphabetical dictionary

organization in combination with numerous cross-references to make it easy to

locate desired terms while permitting a look up additional,

contextually-related translations.

An Internet version of this dictionary can be found at www.russian-dictionary.org.

This site contains the latest version of the dictionary, as well as forms

where the reader can submit corrections and additions for incorporation into

future editions of the dictionary.

We would like to thank IEEE Computer Society for undertaking the

publication of this dictionary. We would also like to express our gratitude to

Greg Cole, who heads the Center for International Networking Initiatives at

the University of Tennessee, Knoxville for maintaining the Friends and

Partners web site hosting an electronic version of the dictionary since 1994.

Our thanks and indebtedness goes to people too numerous to mention, for

corresponding with us over the years, giving us new ideas and suggestions,

helping us make this a better dictionary.

We see our audience as computer professionals, students, and anyone who

comes in contact with computers and the English and Russian languages. We hope

that the readers will find this dictionary to be a useful reference in their

everyday work.

Yury Avrutin and Paul Druker

 

Notes on Dictionary Usage

There are two types of dictionary articles — main and secondary. A main

article consists of a term and its translations. A secondary article lists a

term which may be an abbreviation, an acronym, or a form of a term which does

not require its own translation. The secondary article always references its

main article. If a main article has secondary terms, they are listed in

parentheses.

Translations close in meaning are separated by semicolons. Translations

representing different parts of speech and unrelated translations are

separated by bold numerals. In certain cases, in an effort to help the reader

establish the context, we have included a short explanation or a functional

group to which the translation belongs. Groups appear in italics preceding the

translation; explanations are italicized in parentheses after the

translation.

The English-Russian part of the dictionary lists parts of speech, groups

and cross-references in English; explanations are shown in Russian. The

Russian-English part of the dictionary is the opposite of the above — it lists

parts of speech, groups and cross-references in Russian; explanations are

shown in English.

A translation which is an abbreviation or an acronym is indicated by words

abbr and аббр.,

in English and Russian parts respectively. To cross-reference closely

related terms and synonyms, words See and См.

are used. Lower case see and см.

are used to reference the main dictionary article from a secondary entry

without its own translation. Contextually related terms are cross-referenced

with phrases See also and См.

также. In those cases where a

translation may be clarified by a comparison with another translation, words

Compare and Ср.

are used for cross-reference.

Homonyms are indicated by superscripted numerals in separate dictionary

articles. Wherever a homonym is used, either as a part of a translation or a

cross-reference, it is also superscripted.

According to the rules of the Russian grammar, word combinations cannot be

assigned a part of speech and therefore, unlike English dictionaries where

syntax error would be listed as a noun, standard Russian dictionaries

would list nothing for синтаксическая

ошибка. However, for the

benefit of our readers who may not be intimately familiar with the intricacies

of the Russian grammar, we have listed the identity of the masculine, feminine

and neuter nouns in word combinations so that синтаксическая

ошибка appears together with ж

for женский

род.

See the following diagram for examples of dictionary articles and tables

below for a complete list of parts of speech, groups, and abbreviations used

in this dictionary.

Parts of speech

adj adjective  

 

прил прилагательное

adv adverb нареч

 

   

 

наречие

n noun ж женский

род

м мужской

род

с средний

род

phrase  

 

phrase фраза

фраза

pl plural мн множественное

число

v verb гл

глагол

Groups

abbr abbreviation аббр. аббревиатура

ascii ASCII code ascii код

ASCII

e-slang  

 

Internet slang э.

жаргон  

 

интернетный

жаргон

electro electronics and electricity электр.

электроника

и электротехника

email electronic mail почта электронная

переписка

lang programming language язык язык

программирования

math mathematics мат. математика

med medicine мед. медицина
phone telephony and communications  

 

телеф. телефония

и связь

print printing and publishing полигр. полиграфия
secur security защита защита

и безопасность

signal signal name сигнал название

сигнала

slang slang expression жаргон профессиональное

выражение

unit unit of measurement ед. изм.

единица измерения

Cross-references

See  

   

   

   

   

   

   

 

См. Смотри
See also  

   

   

   

   

   

   

 

См. также

Смотри также

Compare  

   

   

   

   

   

   

 

Ср. Сравни